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  • The West African Standard Compaction Test - Structville

    The compaction energy of WAS lies between the compaction energy of BS Light (Standard Proctor) and BS Heavy (Modified Proctor). The details of the West African Standard compaction test using BS Mould are as follows; Volume of mould = 1000 cm 3 = 0.001 m 3 Number of blows = 10 Number of soil layers = 5 Weight of rammer = 4.5 kg Height of fall = 0.4575 m Therefore, the compaction energy ...

  • An Alternative Method to the West African Compaction

    It had been suggested to use the West African Compaction Test Procedure since the early 1950’s so as to determine the CBR of gravel lateritic soils in West African countries [1]. This test procedure called West African Compaction (WAC) [2] is largely used in road construction in West African countries and had the particularity to be long and use a large amount of material.

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  • (PDF) An Alternative Method to the West African

    It had been suggested to use the West African Compaction Test Procedure since the early 1950’s so as to determine the CBR of gravel lateritic soils in West African countries [1].

  • An Alternative Method to the West African Compaction (WAC ...

    It had been suggested to use the West African Compaction Test Procedure since the early 1950 s so as to determine the CBR of gravel lateritic soils in West African countries [1]. This test procedure called West African Compaction (WAC) [2] is largely used in road construction in West African countries and had the particularity to be long and use a large amount of material. This note is the ...

  • Influence of Compaction Energies on the Strength ...

    Specimens of artificially contaminated and treated lateritic soil were compacted using two compaction energies, namely, standard proctor (SP) and West African standard (WAS) or “intermediate.” Samples were subjected to compaction and strength [unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and California bearing ratio (CBR)] tests. The results of laboratory tests show that the strength ...

  • Geo-engineering Characteristics and Behaviour of Coal ...

    The California bearing ratio (CBR) attained optimal value at 2% for the modified AASHTO and West African Standard (WAS) compaction energies and 6% raw meal content for BS compaction energy. Peak shear strength was also achieved at 6% raw meal content. These results demonstrate that the geotechnical properties of the coal-reject can be improved significantly with the addition of up to 6%

  • The Role of Vegetation in the Dynamics of West African ...

    The observations show that the vegetation, temperature, specific humidity, and rainfall in West Africa are approximately uniform in the zonal direction; our analyses in section 2 demonstrated that a zonally symmetric model should be capable of simulating the essential features of West African monsoons. The model represents the zonal average between 15°W and 15°E. The model domain is global ...

  • Informative Posts Archives - Structville

    The West African Standard Compaction Test. Ubani Obinna-March 19, 2020 1. The West African Standard (WAS) compaction test is a type of compaction procedure that utilises intermediate compaction energy (compactive effort) for densification... Read more. Guides. Tips for Civil Engineering Job Interviews. Ubani Obinna-March 18, 2020 3. Landing a good job soon after graduation is the

  • The British Standard Compaction Test for Soils: A Study of ...

    25/05/2015  In particular, work has been directed towards determining to what extent the results of the British Standard Compaction Test for Soils are affected by the sub-base on which the mould is placed. Optimum dry densities were found to be ½–1½ 1b per cubic foot lower when the test was performed on a stout wooden table instead of a concrete floor. The difference in optimum moisture content was O ...

  • Influence of Compactive Effort on Bagasse Ash with

    The result of a laboratory study on the influence of British Standard Light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compactive effort on up to 8% bagasse ash content with up to 4% cement treated lateritic soil on compaction and shear strength characteristic of laterite. The result shows decreased in Maximum Dry Density with increased in bagasse ash content and in ...

  • Some geotechnical properties of two laterite soils ...

    1/03/1989  However, while the granite gneiss derived laterite soil will be suitable when compacted at the energy of the Standard Proctor (0.60 MNm/m'), the amphibolite derived laterite soil may need to be compacted at at least the energy of the West African Compaction (1.07 MNm/m'). This is in view of its relatively low maximum dry densities and high compression indices. The granite gneiss derived ...

  • INFLUENCE OF COMPACTIVE EFFORTS AND

    The results of a laboratory study on the influence of standard Proctor and West African standard compactive efforts as well as compaction delays up to 3 h on the compaction and strength characteristics of lateritic soil treated with a maximum of 8% lime (by dry weight of soil) is presented. The results obtained show that the compaction and strength properties of the lime-treated soil decreased ...

  • standard value of compaction factor Solution for ore

    10/12/2012  features of west african standard compaction energy. OPTIMISING SOIL-CEMENT-ASH STABILISATION MIX FOR MAXIMUM ... were carried out using the standard Proctor (SP) and West African Standard (WAS) energy levels. If the BS ...

  • Influence of laboratory aggregate compaction method on

    Thus, lower compaction energy typically promotes the design of SMA with higher content of fine aggregates (passive particles), rather than coarse aggregates (active particles). This results in SMA with lower resistance to permanent deformation as reported in Austroads (2013) . In this context, a study on alternative aggregate compaction methods that could provide enhanced SMA design was ...

  • [PDF] Influence of Compactive Efforts on Cement- Bagasse ...

    A laboratory study on the influence of compactive effort on expansive black cotton specimens treated with up to 8% ordinary Portland cement (OPC) admixed with up to 8% bagasse ash (BA) by dry weight of soil and compacted using the energies of the standard Proctor (SP), West African Standard (WAS) or “intermediate” and modified Proctor (MP) were undertaken. The expansive black cotton soil ...

  • Influence of Compactive Effort on Bagasse Ash with

    The result of a laboratory study on the influence of British Standard Light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compactive effort on up to 8% bagasse ash content with up to 4% cement treated lateritic soil on compaction and shear strength characteristic of laterite. The result shows decreased in Maximum Dry Density with increased in bagasse ash content and in ...

  • Laboratory Assessment of Metakaolin Effect on the ...

    A dark grey Black Cotton soil treated with up to 24% Metakaolin content was compacted using British standard light (BSL),West African standard (WAS) or “intermediate”and British standard heavy (BSH) compactive efforts at moulding water contents -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content. Specimens where extruded from compaction moulds and allowed to air dry on the table in the ...

  • Future Climate For Africa

    This study analyses uncertainties associated with the main features of the annual cycle of West African rainfall (amplitude, timing, duration) in 15 CMIP5 simulations over the Sahelian and Guinean regions with satellite daily precipitation estimates. The annual cycle of indices 17 December 2019 // Journal Papers, Climate science. VIEW MORE. DOWNLOAD. Share this: Potential impact of climate ...

  • Prediction of African waves and specification of squall lines

    kinetic energy for the imbedded wave disturbances. This study, furthermore, compared the per- formance of several different numerical weather prediction models. Among these, the single level barotropic and primitive equation models were shown to be most promising for studies on the westward propagation of African waves when these models were applied at the 700 mb level. The Tellus 32 (1980), 3 ...

  • Evaluation of compaction properties of some semi-arid zone ...

    free swell, specific gravity and compaction test using the energy level of British Standard light, BSL, West African Standard, WAS and British Standard heavy, BSH. Mini-tab R15 software and XLSTART 2017 statistical tool incorporated as an add-in in Microsoft Excel were used for the regression modeling, correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) respectively. Results show that the ...

  • Laboratory Assessment of Metakaolin Effect on the ...

    A dark grey Black Cotton soil treated with up to 24% Metakaolin content was compacted using British standard light (BSL),West African standard (WAS) or “intermediate”and British standard heavy (BSH) compactive efforts at moulding water contents -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content. Specimens where extruded from compaction moulds and allowed to air dry on the table in the ...

  • Site Contents - Transportation Research Board

    Results obtained together with existing literature show that the granite gneiss derived laterite soil is suitable for use as fills for embankments and earth dams construction when compacted at the energy of the standard Proctor (0.60 mnm/cu m). The amphibolite derived laterite soil will however require at least the energy of the West African compaction (1.07 mnm/cu m) to be suitable for ...

  • Briefing: Lateritic soil and calcined kaolin for earth ...

    6/12/2017  The tests carried out were consistency limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength and shear strength tests. The calcined kaolin contents were 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125%, all measured by weight of the dry soil. The specimens of the soil mixtures were prepared using two compaction energy levels – namely, the British standard light (BSL) and West African standard (WAS) – at ...

  • Evaluation of compaction properties of some semi-arid zone ...

    free swell, specific gravity and compaction test using the energy level of British Standard light, BSL, West African Standard, WAS and British Standard heavy, BSH. Mini-tab R15 software and XLSTART 2017 statistical tool incorporated as an add-in in Microsoft Excel were used for the regression modeling, correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) respectively. Results show that the ...

  • Future Climate For Africa

    This study analyses uncertainties associated with the main features of the annual cycle of West African rainfall (amplitude, timing, duration) in 15 CMIP5 simulations over the Sahelian and Guinean regions with satellite daily precipitation estimates. The annual cycle of indices 17 December 2019 // Journal Papers, Climate science. VIEW MORE. DOWNLOAD. Share this: Potential impact of climate ...

  • Technical Analysis of WEST AFRICAN RESOURCES

    Technical analysis gauges display real-time ratings for the selected timeframes. The summary for WEST AFRICAN RESOURCES LIMITED is based on the most popular technical indicators — Moving Averages, Oscillators and Pivots. Results are available at a quick glance.

  • Pozzolanic Influence of Fly Ash in Mobilizing the ...

    Light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) or “intermediate effort” and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compaction to represent the range of compactive efforts expected in the field without compaction delay. The WAS compaction is the conventional energy level commonly used in the region and consists of the energy derived from a 4.5 kg rammer

  • West Africa - Wikipedia

    West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa.The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo, as well as the United Kingdom Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

  • ROAD – LAMATA

    Provide, spread, shape and compact to 100% West African Standard compaction 150mm thick natural rock laterite as base for adjoining junctions; Clear road (for adjoining junctions), provide and lay as prime coat MC1 cut back bitumen at 0.9 litres/m2 including blinding with sharp sand or quarry fines; Provide and spray bituminous tack coat; Provide lay and compact asphaltic concrete wearing ...

  • The meteoric rise of African art London Evening Standard

    African art, for so long overlooked in London’s (and the world’s) galleries, is finally getting the recognition it deserves. And interest is booming. There is also a new, cosmopolitan wave of ...

  • Influence of Compactive Efforts on Bagasse Ash Treated ...

    The WAS compaction energy which is conventionally used in the region yielded CBR value of 11% at 2% bagasse ash treatment of soil is recommended for use as subgrade of lightly trafficked roads in view of expected increase in strength due to time-dependent pozzolanic reactions. Keywords: California bearing ratio, Compactive effort, Unconfined compressive strength, British Standard Light, West ...

  • Briefing: Lateritic soil and calcined kaolin for earth ...

    6/12/2017  The tests carried out were consistency limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength and shear strength tests. The calcined kaolin contents were 25, 50, 75, 100 and 125%, all measured by weight of the dry soil. The specimens of the soil mixtures were prepared using two compaction energy levels – namely, the British standard light (BSL) and West African standard (WAS) – at ...

  • 8 Amazing Physical Features of Africa Britannica

    The East African Rift System has two branches: the Eastern Rift Valley, which runs the entire length of the rift, and the Western Rift Valley, which runs northward from the northern tip of Lake Malawi and forms an arc that includes several other eastern African lakes: Rukwa, Tanganyika, Kivu, Edward, and Albert.

  • ROAD – LAMATA

    Provide, spread, shape and compact to 100% West African Standard compaction 150mm thick natural rock laterite as base for adjoining junctions; Clear road (for adjoining junctions), provide and lay as prime coat MC1 cut back bitumen at 0.9 litres/m2 including blinding with sharp sand or quarry fines; Provide and spray bituminous tack coat; Provide lay and compact asphaltic concrete wearing ...

  • Pozzolanic Influence of Fly Ash in Mobilizing the ...

    Light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) or “intermediate effort” and British Standard Heavy (BSH) compaction to represent the range of compactive efforts expected in the field without compaction delay. The WAS compaction is the conventional energy level commonly used in the region and consists of the energy derived from a 4.5 kg rammer

  • Bureaucracy, poor infrastructure stall regional ...

    26/07/2019  Speaking at the two-day West African Ports and Rail Evolution Forum in Lagos, themed: ‘Defining the future of transport infrastructure, maintenance and expansion in West Africa’, the experts ...

  • Proctor compaction test - Wikipedia

    The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory method of experimentally determining the optimal moisture content at which a given soil type will become most dense and achieve its maximum dry density.The test is named in honor of Ralph Roscoe Proctor [], who in 1933 showed that the dry density of a soil for a given compactive effort depends on the amount of water the soil contains during soil ...

  • Converse

    Water-Features, Sewer's Drainage; Snake Island 33,000 M2 Lay-Down Area. Excavation of Area; Compaction of Area to West-African Standard compaction tests; Geo-Textile Membrane laid; Stone Base provided, spread compacted in layers compaction test carried out; Filter drains installed to keep Lay-Down Area free from water; American International School Chevron Complex, Alpha Beach

  • Geotechnical Properties of Subgrade Soils along Sections ...

    Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuu’s ...

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    Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for.